Yeshwanth Bakkavemana

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DEFENDING THE FAITH: A Homili on 1 Pet. 3:15 – 16

I. Introduction

Have we ever asked what our Christian faith is? What it means to be a Christian? Have we ever felt the need to defend our faith? How would you respond to someone who raises question against Christian faith? Do you feel you are well equipped? Do we actually feel the need to defend our faith? If so, how are we preparing ourselves? If we are defending in what manner are we defending? How is our life behind our defence of the Gospel? As these questions come to our mind, the challenge is how to defend our Christian faith when Christians are being persecuted? Will we be able to defend our faith in such time? 1 Pet. 3:15-16, addresses these questions. Keeping these questions in mind, let us see what it means “defending the faith” and what involves in defending the faith.

II. Context

Peter writes this letter from Rome which is symbolically referred as ‘Babylon’ in 1 Pet. 5:13. We can date this epistle to 62-64 AD during the time Emperor Nero who was persecuting church during. Both Paul and Peter were executed during Nero’s persecution.

It is in such an ‘official persecution’ times, Peter is talking about ‘defending our Christian faith.” In other words the context is of much suffering and pain. It is in such contest Peter calls the Church to respond by defending the faith with gentleness and respect towards the persecutors. Let us see what involves in order defending our faith.

15But in your hearts sanctify Christ as Lord. Always be ready to make your defence to anyone who demands from you an accounting for the hope that is in you; 16 yet do it with gentleness and reverence. Keep your conscious clear, so that, when you are maligned, those who abuse you for your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame. 1 Pet. 3:15-16

III. Defending the faith

A. Being under the Lordship of Christ

But in your hearts sanctify Christ as Lord V.15a

In the midst of the people who are persecuting Christians and also in the midst of many religions who do not share Christian faith, Peter calls our attention to Christ.

Firstly, he points out to the ‘heart’ as a place where the acknowledgement of Christ’s Lordship should happen. What is this heart in us? What does it mean? Heart is the seat of volition and emotion. In other words it is place of our ‘will.’ It is the core self of the person. It is in this heart Peter is calling Christians to acknowledge Christ as Lord not only based on the mind but also it is a wilful commitment to the Lord Himself (1 Pet. 1:22).

Secondly, the word ‘sanctify’ in Greek is ‘hagiaz̄o’ which means “to sanctify or to make holy.’ Here it does not mean to make Christ more holy. He has always been holy. The word here means “to treat him holy, to set him apart above all human authority.’ It is more in the sense of the phrase “hollowed be thy name’ in the Lord’s Prayer (Matt. 6:9). This phrase is also an adaptation of Isa. 8:13 – “But the Lord of hosts, him you shall regard as holy; let him be your fear and let him be your dread.” In other words, in the midst of people who are persecuting Christians, the authorities who are sanctioning these persecutions; we are called not to fear them but to acknowledge Christ as Lord and God and commit ourselves to glorify and honour him by obeying his commandments, thus preparing for the coming of the kingdom. This is what it means ‘sanctifying,’ glorifying, honouring and respecting Christ as God during the time of persecutions.

B. Continual preparedness to defend the faith

Always be ready to make your defence to anyone who demands from you an accounting for the hope that is in you; v. 15b

We are not only called to acknowledge and commit ourselves to glorifying Christ as Lord by our obedience but also it should be with our response to the objections raised by the non-believers.

In the phrase “make your defence” the Greek word used is ‘apologia’ which may mean “defence or response.” This word could be used formally as defence in the court or as response informally. How can we understand this? If we see the words ‘always’ and ‘anyone,’ they suggest that it is not particular time or particular person that we have to respond. In times of persecution or in our joyous times, in any possible time, we are to give response to a child, teenager, adult, young adult and the old. We are to give response to a student, teacher, doctor, engineer, and watchmen- any person who questions our faith.

In order to make defence, we need to be prepared. This ‘preparedness’ requires constant and honest study of the Scriptures. It has to do with understanding the Scriptures, knowing how to un-lock the Scriptures. Some might ask why I need to study the Scriptures to defend my faith. My answer would be Word of God is the content of our faith. If we do not understand our faith, how do you think we can defend it? It is impossible to defend faith without understanding it. It is impossible to defend the Christian faith without understanding what it means to be a Christian.

What we are defending? Of course, it is our faith in Christ. Our faith in Christ produces hope. This differentiates us from the rest of the non-believers. In the face of persecutions, suffering and pain, the way we conduct our faith generates a visible ‘hope’ to the people around. When they do observe, they will question us for the hope that we have in us. It is in such a time, we are to be always be prepared to give reason informally and to make defence formally depending on the situation.

C. Defending with respect through one’s life v. 16

Yet do it with gentleness and reverence. Keep your conscious clear, so that, when you are maligned, those who abuse you for your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame. v.16

So far we have learned what to defend. Now, Peter calls out attention to the manner in which we should defend. Here Peter brings out two dimensions – external and internal. Externally we are to defend our faith with lot of grace, love and respect. We are not to overpower a non-believer through our intellectual and spiritual pride but rather let the Holy Spirit do His work in the life of the non-believer. We should not win an argument at the cost of losing the person, says Dr. Ravi Zacharias.

Internally, Peter calls our attention to the life of a believer. It is not enough to give an excellent and intelligent response to all the objections. What is required is life behind the response. In other words our life can be the greatest defence of the Gospel than our words of defence. In order to do this we need to keep our conscious clear. When Peter says “keep your conscious clear,” it does not mean that we have to become perfect but it is 1) a commitment to obey God at all costs, 2) practicing immediate repentance and prayer for forgiveness whenever Holy Spirit convicts our conscious, 3) and loving our neighbour as ourselves. When we are successful in keeping our conscious clear the life that is lived itself will be the greatest defence. This life itself will be an instrument which God will use to silence the one who is asking the questions against the hope that we have in Christ. This is what it means when Peter says, “so that, when you are maligned, those who abuse you for your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame.”




IV. Conclusion

            As I bring this to a close, I would like to bring this man to your attention. His name is Justin Martyr who lived 100-165 AD. He was an early Christian apologist. He was killed while he was defending his Christian faith. Paul was beheaded in Rome while defending his faith. Peter was crucified upside down while defending his faith. St. Thomas, who came to India 2000 years ago, was murdered for defending his faith.

There is one thing common in all these defenders. That is Hope in Christ. They all have acknowledged and committed their life to the Lordship of Christ. They all were willing to defend their faith in the times of persecution and trails. Their hope was not a blind hope. It is a meaningful hope that stemmed out from the faith that has sought understanding in Christ. They defended through word and life.

The questions before us today is have we acknowledged and committed out lives to Christ? Or we are just taking Christ for granted? Are we constantly preparing ourselves to defend our faith? Do we really understand what our faith is? Do we respect and be gentle with our non-believer neighbours while defending our faith? Are we defending the Gospel by living it? These questions I leave with you so that you will try to understand the seriousness in understanding your faith and giving a defence through life and through words but with love and gentleness.


Towards Nepal Christian Theology: A Proposal


I. Introduction

The reader may think with reservation why do we need Nepal Christian theology (NCT)? To answer the question one must seek to understand the context of Nepal. The context of Nepal is a pluralistic society and church is constantly challenged for its existence. It always has been difficult to communicate Gospel in the multi-religious context of Nepal. Therefore, Gospel took the shape of communication through social action initially. In fact the critiques of Christianity opine that it was because of this social and missionary service, conversion and adoption of Christianity has been taking place.[1] Therefore we see a dichotomy between evangelical mandate and social mandate of the gospel. The western theologies, though in principle helpful but at the practical and existential levels has not been able to communicate the Gospel in a comprehensible way. Nepali church needs to articulate Christian faith in a way it is appropriately comprehended in its own religio-cultural context without compromising its Christian essence. How do we do this? What are the sources available? What are the goals? What is the appropriate methodology? What are the parameters or limits?

This paper is a humble attempt to address questions raised above. I, myself, am not an authoritative voice in dealing with the subject because of my Indian nationality. However, I do speak as a fellow brother and a fellow Christian who share the same struggle as that of Nepali church. This is a proposal for the Nepali church for a Nepal Christian Theology. It is my prayer that as you read, may the Holy Spirit provoke your minds and ignite your hearts to communicate His message in a Nepali cup. This paper is open for criticism, and further discussion if needed be.

II. Definitions

1. Faith

Faith is often misunderstood as a blind belief based on inadequate evidence available.[2] Many a times it is considered as something that cannot be reasoned. Two words stand out pertaining faith- belief and trust. These words have to do with the “articles of Christian faith” and the object of faith i.e., God. Therefore, to “have faith” means to accept these “articles of faith” and also the object of faith.

For Luther, faith means trusting in God’s promises, an undeviating trust, a constant stance of conviction of the trustworthiness of God’s promises. For Calvin, faith is steady and certain knowledge of the divine benevolence towards us. For Barth, in God alone is there faithfulness and faith is the trust we may lay hold of Him. Therefore, to hold to God is to rely on the fact that God is and live in this certainty.

Faith has two dimensions divine and human factors. We can see the same in our freedom to repent and to believe in Christ and the giving of forgiveness and faith which is a divine gift. These two dimensions are mysteriously connected.[3] However, some may emphasis on the human factor as in natural theology and others in the divine factor to the operation of Holy Spirit in us.

Within historical Christian tradition, faith is considered as a “link” which relates us to the source of our salvation.[4] It has epistemological and soteriological aspects which again points to divine-human dimension. In other words, faith concerns how things can be known and how salvation may be grasped. Two people are worth mentioning who emphasize either of these aspects. One is Martin Luther who understood faith as “justification by faith alone.” He emphasizes on the promises of God which has been demonstrated in and through the faithfulness of Christ which unites the believer to God. Therefore, for Luther, faith is more than historical evidence. It is personal. It is Christological because the object of faith to which a believer is to unite is Christ and it is Christ who is ‘self-revelation’ of God in history demonstrated God’s faithfulness to His promises.[5]

Thomas Aquinas takes an epistemological approach. In other words he brought faith and reason together. For him, faith accepts the articles of Christian faith which can be reasoned or rationalized consistent with human reason.[6] One must not misunderstand that for Aquinas faith is not possible because of reason but faith can be rationalized in way that has some bearing on human existential concerns.

In summary, faith is not a blind belief in the absence of evidence available though it goes beyond evidence itself. It is a gift of God given to us. It expresses a genuine relationship with God that reflect on our ethical behaviour and coupled with good works. It is Soteriological and epistemological. It is theological and historical.

2. Theology and its relationship with faith

If faith is not a blind belief with divine and human factors mysteriously connected, then theology is a human attempt to rationalize our belief and gift. According to Anslem, the definition of theology is faith seeking understanding. Theology follows faith. The definition of theology has been expanded from a ‘dogmatic understanding’ to a renewed understanding in the modern times. This renewed understanding of theology is a task of just not to guard the dogma of the church but giving an account of our faith. [7] Therefore, it is a critical reflection that follows after the praxis of faith. This reflection involves a systematic exercise that seeks to give coherent reasons of the Christian faith, based primarily on Scriptures, located in the context of culture in general, in a contemporary language and to relate to existential concerns.[8] Therefore, theology is articulation of faith based primarily on biblical, systematic, contemporary and practical aspects. Leroy Stults rightly points that theology is an attempt to understand and explain Christian faith to the Church in teaching and to the world in proclaiming.[9] It implies, therefore, theology is both a systematic study and systematic exposition didactic and kerygmatic.

3. Nepal Christian Theology (NCT) & it’s urgent necessity

Before we define Nepal Christian theology, we need to address the question “why we need NCT?” Firstly, we need NCT because of Nepal’s distinct and unique context. Cindy Perry points out that Nepal is a “mosaic of diverse cultures, languages, ethnic groups and religious practices.”[10] Dr. Mangal Man Maharjan on Nepal, with C. V. Matthew points out that Hinduism which is the major religion of the state that constitutes 89% of the population.[11] However, this 89% is a matter of suspicion to the scholars in the view rising of ethnic consciousness among different tribes in Nepal.[12] Nevertheless, in this context the church constantly is challenged for its existence. There is a need to articulate Christian faith in this context. The need to articulate one’s faith is not a mere abstract academic exercise but also a daily necessity and essential part of church’s ministry.[13] Secondly, we need NCT because the western theology is inadequate to address the existential concerns of the Nepali context. The reason for this inadequacy is because western theology comprises of thought patterns, and the existential concerns of its own context. Thirdly, we need NCT because it’s interaction with other religions. It is imperative for Nepali church, to present the Christian faith in a comprehensible manner to other religions. This requires Nepali theologians to articulate Christian faith in its multi-religious context. Fourthly, we need NCT because of the necessity for correct doctrinal beliefs which are essential between the believer and God (Heb. 11:6).[14] As mentioned earlier, Nepal’s context is pluralistic and therefore, there exists varied alternatives which challenge Christianity. Let me categorise these alternatives into two-secular and religious. Secular alternatives like humanism are anthropocentric and religious alternatives constitute Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam etc. Therefore, NCT becomes an impending need for the church. Fifthly, we need NCT because it’s distinct social reality. In Nepal, as I observe there is a strong interaction between religion and culture. This interaction influences the thought patterns. In doing theology, we often encounter this interaction. In this context it is essential to clarify Christian faith to the church (didactic) and proclaim Christian faith in a comprehensible manner (kerygmatic), at times; there is a need to give defence(apologia). Keeping the above factors, it becomes necessary for Nepal Christian theology.

Since, as stated above, the existence of church is a challenge every day, there is urgency for NCT. This requires Nepali theologians to focus on writing theology for the Nepali church.

Having said, the definition of Nepal Christian theology is “it is a careful, systematic and organized articulation of Christian faith in its pluralistic society to clarify Christian faith to the church (didactic), proclaim the same to the society at large (kerygma) and defend the same against the objections raised (apologia).

4. Sources of doing nct

McGrath speaks of four main sources for doing theologian which were acknowledged within Christian tradition. They are Scripture, reason, tradition and experience.[15] It is not possible to discuss in-depth keeping in view the limitation of the paper. However, it is sufficient to know that Scripture is the primary source in doing theology. In that it is considered authoritative for Christian thinking. It does not contain the word of God but it is the revealed word of God. It is the foundation and the substance of theology. With regard to reason, human beings are rational being and God is too. Therefore, reason is to be expected to play a major role in theology. The role of reason is complementary. In other words, faith cannot be limited to reason but reason is only a modus operandi to build on what has been already revealed.[16] To ‘build upon’ means “to organize the facts as given, in this case by revelation.”[17] Therefore, reason is to organize and systematize the revealed truth for a better comprehension. With regard to tradition, the Latin word ‘traditio’ which means “an active process of reflection by which theological or spiritual insights are valued, assessed, and transmitted from one generation to another.”[18] It refers to the traditional way of interpreting the scriptures. We cannot deny the 2000 years of experience. Tradition helps us not to fall into overtly individualistic interpretation of the Scriptures. Scripture has regulatory authority, in that; traditions are to be tested based on Scriptures but not the other way around. With regard to experience, though it is catalogued as one of the sources, one must consider it with caution. There are two main streams in relation to experience & theology. One is experience as a foundational source for theology. Second one is theology provides an “interpretative framework” for our experience to be interpreted.[19] Our experiences may mislead our interpretation of the Scriptures. This aspect was very succinctly explained by Martin Luther. He points out to the misunderstanding resulted out of disciples’ experience of Lord’s death. They experienced God’s absence. However, resurrection proved their experience wrong. Resurrection re-oriented them to a right experience of God’s hidden presence. Therefore, experience should not be taken as the source to interpret the Scripture rather it has to be considered as something to be interpreted by the Scripture.[20]

III. The goal of NCT

In the light of what has been said, the following would be possible goals that NCT should strive to fulfil them. Firstly, to reflect on Nepal Christian community in NCT. The theology should consist of words of comfort and confrontation but should be the Word of God. Secondly, to form a “creative theology,”[21] this reflects a clear and correct Christian thought and deeply spiritual insight for the benefit of Nepali church and the church in the world at large. Thirdly, to dynamically interact with the community of faith in teaching the correct doctrines and with the world in giving reasons and defence of the faith. Fourthly, never to lose its Christian essence while attempting to contextualize the Christian message. Fifthly, not to fall into parochialism. NCT will fail if it becomes provincial if it does not take other theologies critically in to consideration and supports the negative element of culture, e.g., Caste system misogyny etc. Therefore, the overarching goal of NCT should be to speak to Nepali church in its own cultural ethos and to be aware of the need for a full theology to the church in the world at large.

Iv. Methodological considerations for doing NCT

A. Setting parameters for doing NCT

Before we discuss about the methodology in doing NCT, we need set the parameters or limits in doing the same. It is worth pointing out that there is vast difference between the West and the East in terms of context, culture, and experience. This is the reason why the Western theology is not helping the Asian church to meet its struggles. It is rightly pointed by Dr. Athyal that “the western flavour of the church in Asia has become an increasing hindrance in recent years with the rise nationalism.”[22] He also opines that there is a similarity in context and culture when we compare biblical context and Asian context. This is the reason Asian church is more advantageous than the Western church. Let us then be mindful that Nepali church is more advantageous than the western church.

Having said that, the context of church in Nepal is that of religious pluralism, poverty, corruption, political instability, unemployment and et al. It is in this context Nepali church has to articulate its faith in a way it can address the mentioned struggles. This articulation of faith has to do with doing theology. In order to do this, we need to set some parameters to avoid a compromise of Christian essence in the process. One such parameter is with regard to syncretism.

1. Syncretism

Syncretism is an attempt to contextualize the Gospel while negating its basic and fundamental Christian essence and replacing it with foreign elements from the context. Dr. Rin Ro refers to the same as syncretising Christianity with national religion.[23] This syncretism can further be divided into four.

            a. Assimilative

In this type of syncretism, in communicating the Gospel, non-Christian elements are incorporated with the view that there is no difference between Christianity and non-Christian religions.[24]

b. Accommodative

In this type of syncretism, in communicating the Gospel, we tend to ‘arm-twist’ the interpretation to have the desired meaning from the context.

c. Situational

In this type of syncretism, in communicating the Gospel, we tend to ‘read-in’ to the text the experience from particular situation. The danger here is a narrowed view of the gospel without fully understanding the full extent of the Gospel’s message.

d. Dispensationalism[25]: periodization of Scriptures

In this type of syncretism, in communicating the Gospel, we tend to compartmentalise the Bible into two Testaments with a stark discontinuity. This may lead us into“modalism” in turn leads us into “Tritheism” – explaining God in three different modes or ways of self-revelation. God the father as a Law giver in Old Testament times, God the Son in the New Testament times, and God the Holy Spirit in the present age. This view is very close to Hindu concept of Tri-theism and hence we need to be cautious.

These syncretistic tendencies are rampant in our church in Nepal. It is because of its pluralistic society with plurality of alternatives, the church is often challenged to look for suitable method to articulate its faith.

B. Contextualization: A biblically – oriented theology

As mentioned earlier syncretism is the danger that needs to be avoided in contextualizing the Gospel in Nepal cultural milieu. What then is the proper contextualization? Why contextualization is the only valid methodology for doing NCT? In what way we need to do NCT without losing its Christian essence?

Contextualization means “the process by which Christian truth is embodied and translated in a concrete historical situation without compromising its Christian essence (emphasis added).”[26] A proper contextualization is a biblically – oriented theology. In this method, Bible is considered as the foundation and substance of theology. It is God’s revelation. This revelation came to us in its own biblical context. The task of a Nepali theologian is to properly exegete the meaning of the text in its own biblical context, while understanding his/her existential context, and there by addressing the same. In other words, a biblically – oriented contextualization involves dynamic interaction between the text and the context, transformation of the particular existential situation, and appropriately adapting the message of the Gospel without losing its essence.

Dr. Athyal rightly points out that the above method is the only valid way of doing theology in Asia (Nepal).[27] He basically gives three reasons why biblically – oriented theology is the only valid method. Firstly, Christian faith is historical. Secondly, there is a contextual similarity between the Bible and Asian (Nepal) context. Thirdly, Bible itself provides indigenous expression of the Gospel (e.g. John’s usage of ‘logos’ a Greek concept). It is because of the above reasons ‘contextualization with biblical orientation’ is the only valid methodology in doing NCT.

While doing NCT we may have to use the vernacular language which is inter-twined with religious culture of Nepal. We cannot avoid the inter-relationship between religious culture and the language. Bible itself provides answer to this issue. In that, biblical authors also faced the same problem to communicate God’s word in their hostile and pluralistic society. The NT church had to borrow terms or frames of thought but gave them new meaning and content.[28] In other words, God’s word itself presents us a pattern of indigenizing of the same today in Nepal. The language or the words that are borrowed needs to be transformed by the way of clarifying it. In order to do this, one must have a thorough knowledge of the original meaning of the word, and clear picture of the new meaning that is biblically based.

V. Suggestions: the future of NCT

In the light of what has been said, I would like to make few suggestions pertaining to the future of NCT. Firstly, NCT should always be Scriptural. In that, the starting point of theology is Scripture. A thorough exegetical approach is required. Secondly, NCT should not be purely an academic endeavour but it has to be “produced in the laboratory of life”[29] and tested in the community of faith. Thirdly, NCT should be missional. Mission should be the main thrust. This mission is, in Dr. Athyal’s words, “our total responsibility to the total person.”[30] In other words, NCT should address the whole of human life. In this regard a grass-root level ministry may be appropriate in our Nepali context. Fourthly, NCT should be pastoral and prophetic. In that, NCT should be used to comfort and to confront the culture but with respect and love. Fifthly, NCT should be apologectical and polemical. In that, NCT should strive to clarify Christian faith and defend the same. Therefore, NCT is both for didactic and kerygmatic. Sixthly, NCT should be contextual. In that, the word of God has to be appropriated comprehensively without compromising the Christian essence. This is done by taking seriously the limits of contextualization into consideration. Seventhly, NCT should not confine itself one geographical location. It should strive to contribute to the church at large. It should be universal as well. Eighthly, NCT should be systematic. In that, Christian faith has to be articulated in a coherent and logical manner. Ninthly, developing resources and Nepali theologians to do NCT is essential.

VI. conclusion

We started this proposal by asking the question is there a need for Nepal Christian theology? In the process of addressing the question we attempted to clarify the definitions of faith, theology and its relationship with faith. Faith is not a blind trust or belief in God. It is a gift of God to us. Theology is human attempt to articulate this faith in a coherent and logical manner for the better comprehension in one’s respective contexts. Therefore, theology is both didactic and kerygmatic.

With these definitions in view we have explored the working definition of NCT and its urgent necessity. Before, we defined NCT, we have listed the reasons to do NCT. The reasons are multi-religious cultural context, inadequacy of western theology to address the struggles of Nepali church, necessity for the correct doctrinal teaching, and dynamic interaction between religion and culture. It is because of these reasons, doing NCT becomes imperative.

Keeping these reasons and the necessity, we defined NCT as based on Scriptures with didactic, kerygmatic and apologetic dimensions. With this definition in view, we explored the sources of doing NCT. They are primarily the Scripture which is foundational, reason which has a complementary role in building upon what has been revealed, tradition which has regulatory function to avoid overtly individualistic interpretation but to be tested by the Scriptures, and experience which is to be interpreted by the Scriptures.

With this view in mind, we explored the possible goals of NCT. The goals are the community of faith in which NCT has priestly and prophetic role –comfort and confront, to reflect correct and clear Christian thought beneficial to Nepali church, to give reasons and defense of Christian faith in a comprehensible manner, not to be overtly provincial, and to speak to the Nepali church and also the church in world at large as overarching goal.

As we have discussed the goals of NCT, we explore the manner or methodology of doing the same. Before we ventured into this, we have set the parameters or limits in methodology. The parameter in general is syncretism. We need to be cautious of assimilative, accommodative, situational and dispensationalist syncretism in contextualizing the gospel in Nepal. In the light of these limits, we proposed contextualization as biblically – oriented theology which is primarily Scriptural which requires thorough exegesis, and applying meaning of the text to the Nepali context for transformation and confrontation.

Finally we made few suggestions in relation to the future of NCT. NCT should be Scriptural, not merely an academic endeavor, missional, pastoral & prophetic, apologetical & polemeical, contextual, not provincial, systematic and developing resources and Nepali theologians and Christian thinker. May I add one more here by saying that the future of NCT does not singularly lies in the hands of leaders behind the pulpit but in the hands of laity on the mats of church floor who live their faith in the hostile world outside the church.



Athyal, Saphir P. “Towards an Asian Christian Theology.” An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology. Edited by Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur. The Bible & Theology in Asian Context. Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984.

Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology. Unbridged. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1985.

Leroy Stults, Donald. Developing An Asian Evangelical Theology. Manila, Philipines: Omf literature Inc, 1989.

Mabry, Hunter P, ed. Christian Ethics- An Introductory Reader. Indian Theological Library. Delhi: ISPCK, 2007.

Manjupuria, Trilok, and Rohit Kumar Manjupuria. Religons in Nepal. Kathmandu: M. Devi Lashkar (Gwalior), 2004.

Martin, G. W. “Fatih.” Edited by J .I Packer. New Dictionary of Theology. IVP Reference Collection. Leicester, England: Inter- Varsity Press, 1988.

Matthew, C. V. “Hindusim.” Edited by Scott W. Sunquist. A Dictionary Asian Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.

McGrath, Alister E. Christian Theology An Introduction. Second edition. UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

Perry, Cindy. “Nepal.” Edited by Scott W. Sunquist. A Dictionary Asian Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.

Rin Ro, Bong. “Contextualization: Asian Theology.” An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology. Edited by Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur. The Bible & Theology in Asian Context. Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984.

Tano, Rodrigo D. “Toward an Evangelical Asian Theology.” An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology. Edited by Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur. The Bible & Theology in Asian Context. Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984.


[1]Trilok Manjupuria and Rohit Kumar Manjupuria, Religons in Nepal (Kathmandu: M. Devi Lashkar (Gwalior), 2004), 323.

[2]Alister E. McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction (Second edition.; UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1997), 154.

[3]Martin, “Faith,”246.

[4]Martin, “Fatih”, 247.

[5]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 156–157.

[6]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 155.

[7]Hunter P Mabry, ed., Christian Ethics- An Introductory Reader (Indian Theological Library; Delhi: ISPCK, 2007), 214.

[8]Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology (Unabridged.; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1985), 21.

[9]Donald Leroy Stults, Developing An Asian Evangelical Theology (Manila, Philipines: Omf literature Inc, 1989), 10.

[10]Cindy Perry, “Nepal,” ed. Scott W. Sunquist, A Dictionary Asian Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 593.

[11]C. V. Matthew with Mangal Man Maharjan on Nepal, “Hindusim,” ed. Scott W. Sunquist, A Dictionary Asian Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 334–335.

[12]C. V. Matthew with Mangal Man Maharjan, “Hindusim,”, 334; Perry, “Nepal,”593.

[13]Leroy Stults, Developing An Asian Evangelical Theology, 16.

[14]Erickson, Christian Theology, 29.

[15]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 181.

[16]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 213.

[17]Leroy Stults, Developing An Asian Evangelical Theology, 63.

[18]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 219.

[19]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 225.

[20]McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 228.

[21]Leroy Stults, Developing An Asian Evangelical Theology, 38.

[22]Saphir P. Athyal, “Towards an Asian Christian Theology,” in An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology (ed. Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur; The Bible & Theology in Asian Context; presented at the 6th ATA Theological Consultation, Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984), 57.

[23]Bong Rin Ro, “Contextualization: Asian Theology,” in An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology (ed. Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur; The Bible & Theology in Asian Context; presented at the 6th ATA Theological Consultation, Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984), 69.

[24]Rodrigo D. Tano, “Toward an Evangelical Asian Theology,” in An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology (ed. Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur; The Bible & Theology in Asian Context; presented at the 6th ATA Theological Consultation, Seoul, South Korea: Asian Theological Association, 1984), 99.

[25] For further reading see, McGrath, Christian Theology An Introduction, 551–552.

[26]Tano, “Toward an Evangelical Asian Theology,” 94.

[27]Athyal, “Towards an Asian Christian Theology,” 51.

[28]Athyal, “Towards an Asian Christian Theology”, 52.

[29]Athyal, “Towards An Asian Christian Theology,” 55.

[30]Athyal, “Towards An Asian Christian Theology.”